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过渡期的埃及 Egypt In transition

丹尼尔·博拉胡拉克Daniel Berehulak http://www.cnpps.org 2013-03-23 19:25:17 来源:华赛网

    2012年6月24日,人们在埃及首都开罗的解放广场庆祝穆尔西当选新总统。一名情绪激动的穆斯林兄弟会支持者晕倒后被抬上台。

    Egypt In transition

    A supporter of the Muslim Brotherhood overcome by emotion is carried onto the stage as Egyptians celebrate the election of their new president Mohamad Morsi in Tahrir Square in Cairo, Egypt, on June 24, 2012 .

    2012年6月,继“阿拉伯之春”和军事统治者穆巴拉克下台后,埃及人民以民主投票方式选举新总统。穆斯林兄弟会总统候选人穆尔西击败穆巴拉克时期总统候选人莎菲克赢得选举。埃及民众在街头高呼革命胜利。

    新当选的总统穆尔西取消了埃及最高军事委员会(scaf)通过的宪法,将立法权、行政权从scaf转移到自己手里。11月29日,埃及爆发示威游行,抗议议会一夜间通过的宪法草案。由伊斯兰势力控制的立宪会议通过了新的宪法草案,在全民公投中,穆斯林兄弟会最终获胜。2012年12月,新宪法草案决定以“伊斯兰教法”为埃及宪法的指导基础,这与穆巴拉克统治时期的宪法基本相同。自由派担心新宪法草案中的一些其它条款会阻碍埃及自由的进程,并将国家带向伊斯兰化。

    在民主选举产生的首位总统的统治下,埃及前方的道路依然漫长。

    After 2011’s Arab spring and the ousting of Military ruler Hosni Mubarak, the people of Egypt went to the polls to vote for a democratically elected President in June of this year. The Muslim brotherhood candidate Mohamed Morsi was declared the winner of the run-off presidential election over the Mubarak holdover candidate Ahmed Shafiq. Egyptians celebrated in the streets hailing themselves victors of the revolution.

    Newly elected president Morsi in a bid to gain greater power over the interim Military council Scaf, before a constitution being drafted last August, took the nation by surprise. President Morsi cancelled Scaf's constitutional declaration and transferred full executive and legislative authority from the military council to himself. Demonstrations ensued across Egypt against the country's draft constitution, rushed through parliament in an overnight session on November 29. The country's new draft constitution, passed by a constitutional assembly dominated by Islamists, went to referendum vote to be won by the Muslim brotherhood. In December of 2012. On the most controversial issue, the draft constitution said that "the principles of Islamic law" should be the guiding principle for Egyptian law. Which was the same wording as in the old, Mubarak-era, constitution. Liberals are also concerned about a number of other articles they say could curtail freedom and lean the country towards Islamism.

    The road ahead still remains a long one, the future of Egypt as a fledgling democracy is still uncertain under the rule of their first democratically elected President.

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