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俄罗斯的单一制城市 Russan unitary system town

谢尔盖· 波诺马廖夫Sergey Ponomarev http://www.cnpps.org 2013-03-23 13:00:09 来源:华赛网

    

    2012年10月14日,一男一女眺望着俄罗斯克麦罗沃化工厂。

    A man and woman observe the chemical factory in Kemerovo, Russia, Oct. 14, 2012.

    单一制城市就是经济被单一产业或公司主导的城市。这一模式尤其常见于俄罗斯,在前苏联计划经济时代,按照合理的地理规划,选在一些荒凉地区建造了上百座单一制城市。由于缺乏灵活性、不具竞争力,俄罗斯的许多单一制城市面临严重问题。俄罗斯有木材加工城、机械制造城、食品城、燃料城、金属制造城等共约400座单一制城。全国约百分之十的人口在这些城市里生活。许多工厂和车间都已老旧过时,很久没有生产市场需要的产品,靠借贷支撑。这种靠信贷维生的日子被2008年金融危机打破。16万名男女开始面临失业挑战。

    A unitary system town is a town whose economy is dominated by a single industry or company. The term is especially often used in Russia, where the Soviet planned economy created hundreds of unitary system towns in supposedly rational locations, often in geographically inhospitable areas. The situation in many of Russia's unitary system towns is highly problematic due to their inflexibility and uncompetitiveness.

    Russia has a total of about 400 monocities that were established around timber processing, machine building, food, fuel, and metal manufacturing industry plants. Nearly 10 % of Russia's population live in these cities. Many plants and factories are obsolete and outdated. It's been a long time since they were making products that the market demands, thus, they lived on credit. The borrowed life was halted by the 2008 banking crisis. The challenge of losing job started to threaten 16 million men and women.

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